The UNFCCC is chaired by the Conference of the Parties (COP), which meets annually and serves as the basis for the evolution of the global climate effort. The treaty recognizes the existence of human-caused climate change and divides countries into three major groups according to different commitments. In particular, it has entrusted the industrialised countries (the so-called Annex I parties) with the main responsibility for their struggle, without specifying how. At the beginning of the 20th century, climate change was widely regarded as an esoteric study of a theoretical scientific phenomenon. The first world conference on climate change, in 1979, framed climate change as a global political theme that gave way to similar conferences in 1985, 1987 and 1988.  In 1985, the Advisory Group on Greenhouse Gases (AGGG) was established to make international policy recommendations on climate change and global warming.  At the 1988 Toronto conference, it was proposed that climate change be almost as severe as nuclear war and that early targets for reducing CO2 emissions were discussed.  On 12 December 2015, the text of the Paris Agreement was adopted, a legally binding pact containing all the elements needed to develop a comprehensive strategy to combat climate change for the post-2020- period before 2020 falls under the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol (the Doha Amendment). Some of the main points are summarized below: one hundred and ninety-two countries agree with what experts call the world`s largest climate agreement in history, called the Paris Agreement. Unlike previous agreements, almost all countries – developed and developing – must set emission reduction targets. However, countries can choose their own objectives and there is no implementation mechanism to ensure that they meet these objectives. As part of the agreement, countries must present objectives known as national contributions.
The Paris Agreement, which will come into force in November 2016, aims to keep global temperature rise below 2 degrees Celsius and to strive to keep it below 1.5 degrees Celsius. However, analysts are calling for more action to achieve this goal.